Biographies

Adalbert (Vojtěch) of Prague (d. 997), saint, “Apostle of the Prussians”, 982 Bishop of Prague; spent much time in Rome, dissatisfied with the state of the Church in Prague; martyred when attempting to convert the Baltic Prussians; buried first in Gniezno (Poland), but in 1039 his remains were conveyed to Prague. His cult was very powerful in Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, Germany and Kiev; feast day 23rd April. 

Albrecht VII, Archduke of Austria (1559-1612), son of the Emperor Maximilian II; 1596 Governor of the Netherlands, where he had to fight against the rebellious Dutch provinces and France.

Alfanus (1015-1085), Archbishop of Salerno, saint. Alfanus was a Benedictine monk in the monastery of Monte Cassino until he was elected Archbishop of Salerno in 1058. He actively supported medical education in Salerno and himself translated a number of medical writings from Greek.

Alcuin (c. 735-804), Anglo-Saxon churchman and scholar, Abbot of Tours from 796; collaborated with Charlemagne and by his command revised the Latin Bible.

Augustine (354-430), original Lat. name Aurelius Augustinus, Latin Father of the Church, Bishop of Hippo Regius (now in Algeria), saint, the foremost theologian of the early Church. His doctrine of original sin and human predestination caused long-lasting controversies within the Church; author of The City of God (De civitate dei), in which human history is portrayed as a contest between the City of God and that of the Devil.

Avicenna, recte Ibn Sina (ca 980-1037), Persian-speaking philosopher and physician; the author of Canon medicinae, which summarised the state of medical science at the time. Avicenna greatly influenced western medicine and thinking.

Bavor of Nečtin, nineteenth and longest-serving Abbot of Břevnov, the oldest Bohemian monastery (1289-1333); played an important role in the politics and culture of the Bohemian state; in 1295, at the instance of Bishop Gregory (Cz. Řehoř) of Prague, he re-purchased Codex Gigas from the monastery of Sedlec, where it had been pawned.

Belsheim, Johannes (1829-1909), Norwegian priest, scientist, Biblical scholar; in 1878 he published an edition of Codex Aurex, a Latin manuscript of the Gospels dating from the mid-8th century and now in KB, followed in 1879 by the Acts and Revelation from Codex Gigas.

Braulio of Saragossa (c. 590-651), Bishop of Saragossa, saint;  one of the most important and influential figures in Visigoth Spain; pupil and close friend of Isidore of Seville, and dedicatee of his Etymologiae. Braulio was responsible for the work’s final editing; author of hagiographic works; his collected correspondence was only discovered in the 18th century.

Břetislav I, Duke of Bohemia from 1034-1055, annexed Moravia, mounted a campaign against  Gniezno in Poland, and from there carried off the remains of St Adalbert to Prague. He consolidated the Czech state by becoming a vassal of Emperor Henry III.

Cassiodorus (c. 485-c. 583), Roman official and author; founded, in 555, the monastery of Vivarium in the south of Italy, which soon became an important educational centre with the biggest library of its time. Writings include Institutiones (Instructions), the purpose of which was to prepare monks for theological and other scholarly studies, and in which he urged them to engage in book studies and transcription. 

Charles I the Great/Charlemagne (742-814), became King of the Franks 768, King of the Lombards 774, Holy Roman Emperor 800. Within his great empire he built up a sophisticated apparatus of government, several of the most learned men of the age (Alcuin among them) served at his court and great revival of the arts and learning set in under Church auspices.

Charles IV, german king and King of Boehemia (as Charles) from 1346 to 1378 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1355 to 1378, united Bohemia with Moravia, Silesia and Lausitz under the Bohemian crown. Bohemia became the heartland of the German Empire and Prague the capital of the archdiocese from 1344 onwards and an important centre of the arts; there in 1348, he founded the first university in the German Empire north of the Alps.

Charles X (1622-60), Sw. Karl X Gustav, became King of Sweden in 1654, not by hereditary title but as the appointee of Queen Christina, his cousin; went to war with Poland in 1655 and Denmark in 1657-58.

Charles XI (1655-97), Sw. Karl XI, succeeded to the Swedish throne in 1660; between 1660 and 1672 Sweden was governed by a regency, headed by Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie; Charles married Ulrika Eleonora the Elder (1656-93); he improved the finances of the realm by arraigning the regency and repossesing Crown lands previously granted to the nobility.

Charles XII (1682-1718), Sw. Karl XII, became King of Sweden in 1697. Almost the whole of his reign was occupied with the Great Northern War, 1700-21, against Denmark, Saxony-Poland and Russia; he died in 1718 while besieging Fredrikshald, Norway.

von Celse, Magnus (1709-84), Historian of the Realm and Councillor in Chancery; served in KB from 1729, Assistant Librarian from 1740, Senior Librarian from 1750; author of a dissertation on KB’s history, Bibliothecae Regiae Stockolmiensis historia brevis et succincta, 1751.

Christina (1626-89), Queen of Sweden from 1644 to 1654, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus (Sw. Gustav II Adolf), abdicated 1654, converted to Catholicism and settled in Rome; one of the greatest art collectors in contemporary Europe.

Constantine the Great (c. 285-337), Emperor of West Rome from 312, and of the whole Empire from 324; transferred the imperial capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople; in the Edict of Milan, 313, he guaranteed freedom of worship throughout the Empire.

Constantine-Cyril (originally Constantine, -869) and Methodius (-885), missionaries, ‘Apostles of the Slavs’, canonised; two brothers who were sent out from Constantinople in 863 as missionaries to Great Moravia; gained the support of Pope Hadrian II for making Old Church Slavonic a liturgical language.

Cosmas of Prague (c. 1045-1125), Czech historian, Dean of St Vitus’s Cathedral, Prague; author of Chronica Bohemorum (Chronicle of the Bohemians), recounting Czech history from the remote past down to his own time.

Cyril, see Constantine-Cyril.

Desiderius (1027-1087), Abbot of Monte Cassino, Pope Victor III; elected Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino in 1058, his tenure coincided with a period of great achievement in the mastery’s history; Pope 1086, having at first declined the office.

Dobrovský, Josef (1753-1829), ‘the Father of Slavonic Studies’, founder of Czech philology; author of numerous works on Czech and Slavonic philology; visited Sweden in 1792 in search of manuscripts carried off from Prague in 1648.

Damasus (c. 305-384), became Pope in 366, canonised. During his papacy, Latin finally superseded Greek as the liturgical language of the Roman Church.

Dudik, Beda Franz (1819-90), Benedictine monk, Moravian historian; undertook extensive historical research in Sweden and elsewhere; in 1852 published Forschungen in Schweden für Mährens Geschichte, in which he describes Codex Gigas, and in 1879 Schweden in Böhmen und Mähren 1640-1650.

Elers, Johan (1730-1813), poet, author and topographer. 1751 KB Assistant Librarian; author of Glada qväden and a work of historical topography, Stockholm.

Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 260-c. 339), bishop, historian, author of a history of the Church; introduced a special system, Gospel Canon Tables, for comparing the same episodes in the life of Christ as described in the four Gospels.

Felix de Linda (-1593) Archdeacon 1580-87, Dean of Vyšehrad and Boleslavec.

Ferdinand I (1503-64), became King of Bohemia and Hungary 1526, Holy Roman Emperor 1556; founder of the Austrian Habsburg line and of the Austrian monarchy; strong opponent of Protestantism.

Fredrik I Barbarossa (c. 1123-1190), became Holy Roman Emperor in 1152, brought peace to a troubled Germany but, by refusing to acknowledge Pope Alexander III and appointing an anti-pope, Victor IV, triggered a long-lasting conflict throughout the western world; went on several campaigns in Italy; died by drowning during the Third Crusade.

Frederick III the Pious (1515-1576), Elector Palatine of the Rhine, Count Palatine of Simmern 1559-1576; made Calvinism the official religion of his domain.

Freher, Marquard (1565-1614), German historian, Professor of Law in Heidelberg, published sources of German and Czech history, including the Chronicle of Cosmas.

Galen (c. 130-c. 200), original name Klaudios Galenos, Greek physician and philosopher, author of a succession of writings, especially on anatomy. Galen was active, first in Alexandria and later in Rome. Hippocrates was his principal authority, but he was also greatly influenced by Alexandrian medical science; he himself profoundly influenced Arab and European medicine; numerous translations into Syrian, Arabic and Latin.

Giotto (1266-1267/1276-1337), Italian (Florentine) painter and architect, whose works point to the innovations of the Renaissance style which developed a century later. 

Gregory (Cz. Řehoř) of Valdek, twenty-sixth Bishop of Prague (1296-1301); a note in Codex Gigas states that the manuscript was re-purchased for the Benedictine Order from the Cistercians of Sedlec in 1295 on his initiative, but this does not tally with the year of his appointment as bishop (1296).

Grotius, Hugo, recte Huig de Groot, (1583-1645), Dutch jurist, theologian and historian; known as 'the Father of the Law of Nations' because of his De jure belli ac pacis (On the Laws of War and Peace), 1625.

Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632), Sw. Gustav II Adolf, succeeded as King of Sweden in 1611, father of Christina; made Sweden into a major European power through his intervention in the Thirty Years’ War; reformed Sweden’s administration, legal system, army and navy, education system and economy; re-opened Uppsala University.

Haly Abbas (‘Alī íbn al-‘Abbās al Mağūsī) (-994), Persian physician, author of Kitāb-al-Malakī (the Royal Book), already regarded in his own time as the best of medical textbooks. It contains both a theoretical and a practical section; it was twice translated into Latin, one of the translations being by Constantine the African.

Hammarskiöld, Lorenzo (1785-1827), literary critic, librarian; served at KB from 1806, First Assistant Librarian in 1812, Royal Librarian in 1826; wrote a major work of literary history, Svenska vitterheten, and the first serviceable Swedish surveys of the history of art and  philosophy.

Hanniwaldt (Hannewaldt), Adam (1566-1621), Breslau City Councillor, adviser to Silesian bishops and princes and to Habsburg electors; brother of Andreas Hanniwaldt, who was Rudolph II’s diplomat. Through his brother’s contacts, Adam Hanniwaldt was able to procure important works of art for the church of Zórawina (Ger. Rothsürben, near Wrocław), which he rebuilt; a Lutheran, unlike his brother Andreas; married Catharina von Schweidinger (d. 1608).
 
Hanniwaldt (Hannewaldt), Paul, Silesian nobleman, brother of Simon and the father of Adam and Andreas.

Jerome (c. 347-419), Latin Father of the Church, canonised; between 382 and 385 Secretary to Pope Damasus I of Rome, at whose behest he began revising and translating the Latin Bible. Moved in 386 to Bethlehem, where he completed his Bible translation, Vulgata (Versio vulgata).

Hippokrates (c. 460-370), Greek physician, ’father of medicine’, author to a number of writings, which were published after his death as Corpus Hippocraticum (72 books).

Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) (65-8 BC), Roman poet, author of satires, epistles, odes and a treatise on poetry (Ars poetica). His lyrical poems are masterpieces of form, and he ranks as ancient Rome’s greatest poet.

Ibn al-Ğazzar (Abū Ğa‘far Ahmad b. Ibrahīm b. abī Halīd al Ğazzār) (-c. 1004), physician in the city of Kairouan (in what is now northern Tunisia); author of a succession of medical works, the best-known of them being Kitāb Zād al-musāfir (Provision for the traveller) which Constantine the African translated into Latin as Viaticum peregrinatis.

Isidore of Seville (c. 560-636), Spanish theologian, Bishop of Seville, canonised; wrote a large encyclopaedic work, Etymologiae, which became very widespread and influential in medieval times.

Jaches, Johan Jacob (c. 1650-1709), employed at KB 1687-1702. In 1679, after studying in Wittenberg, he came to Stockholm to take charge of the German School; appointed Assistant Librarian at KB, 1687, Royal Librarian 1694; on taking office, compiled a catalogue of the library; after the Stockholm Castle fire of 1697 he was again tasked with cataloguing the library collections, after being relieved of his post at KB. Kolberg town councillor. 

Johannes III Chotowsky de Chotov, Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Břevnov 1553-75, Polish nobleman.

Johannitius, recte Hunayn ibn Isha´q (809-873), Arab scholar; translated the works of Galen from Greek into Arabic; his Isagoge became a basic medical textbook.

John III (1537-92), became King of Sweden in 1569 after rebelling against his brother Erik XIV; conquered parts of Ingria, sought influence in Poland, and rebuilt the royal  palaces of Stockholm and Kalmar, among other buildings.

Josephus Flavius (c. 37-c. 100 AD), Jewish historian, author of Bellum Iudaicum and Antiquitates Iudeorum, one of the leaders of the uprising against the Romans, 66-70.

Klemming, Gustaf Edvard (1823-93), librarian, head of KB (1865-90); publisher of early Swedish texts and works of bibliography; initiated and directed the relocation of the Royal Library (now the National Library of Sweden, KB) in 1877 from the Royal Palace to Humlegården.

Korytko of Pravdovce, Martin II, forty-second Abbot of the monastery of Břevnov (1575-1602), sanctioned the conveyance of Codex Gigas to Prague.

von Königsmarck, Hans Christopher (1600-63), count, general; took service with Sweden 1630 and was one of the foremost military commanders in the Thirty Years War, 1618-48; 1655 field marshal.

Leander of Seville (c. 540-600), Bishop of Seville, canonised, elder brother of Isidore; elected bishop 579; founded the school of Seville, which became a respected centre of teaching; active opponent of Arianism; friend of Gregory the Great.

Lillieblad, Gustaf (previous to his ennoblement, Peringer) (1651-1710), Professor of Oriental Languages, Uppsala; appointed Royal Secretary and Librarian 1695.

Lucan (Marcus Annaeus) (39-65 AD), Roman poet, summoned to the court of Nero, where, following a swift career he fell into disfavour and was compelled to commit suicide; author of an unfinished ten-volume epic, Pharsalia, about the civil war between Caesar and Pompey. 

Lucifer, (-c. 370), Bishop of Cagliari, Sardinia. Deeply committed to the defence of orthodox doctrine; his highly polemical writings were based on numerous Bible quotations. 

Marcus of Toledo, member of the Toledo cathedral chapter, moved to a school of translation in Toledo at the end of the 12th century. The school had been founded in 1140 to train translators of Galen’s works from the Arabic; translated a treatise by Galen and the Isagoge of Johannitius, this latter translation being more faithful to the original than that by Constantine the African.

Martinus II Korytko de Pravdovic, Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Břevnov 1575-1602, succeeding Johannes III Chotovsky de Chotov, was permitted to resign.

Matthias II (1557–1619), King of Hungary 1608–18 and of Bohemia 1611–17, becoming Holy Roman Emperor in 1612, son of Maximilian II; directed the policies of the House of Habsburg while his brother the Emperor Rudolph II, was incapacitated by mental illness, eventually succeeding him on the imperial throne.

Maximilian II (1527-76), Holy Roman Emperor 1564, Archduke of Austria, King of Bohemia and Hungary, son of the Emperor Ferdinand I.

Maximilian III (1558-1618), son of Maximilian II, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and Governor of Prussia from 1585 onwards; sought to be elected King of Poland but was defeated by Sigismund III; strong supporter of the Counter-Reformation. 

Maximilian I of Bavaria (1573-1651), Duke 1598, Elector Palatine 1623, zealous Catholic, formed the Catholic League in 1069 and sided with the Emperor Ferdinand II at the outbreak of the Thirty Years War.

Methodius, see Constantine-Cyril.

Nero, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (37-68), Roman Emperor 54; during his reign occurred the uprising against the Romans in Palestine (66-70).
 
Nigrin, Laurentius, knight of the Knights of the Cross with Red Star, in Eger in Böhmen. He stood, unsuccessfully, for election as Grand Master of the order in 1606; inscribed his name in Codex Gigas, 1592 (bl. 305v)

Odowalsky, recte Odenwald or Ottenwald, Ernst, colonel in the imperial service during the Thirty Years war until 1639, when he went over to the Swedish side. Under his command in 1648, general von Königsmarck captured the Prague Kleinseite; enrolled in the Swedish House of Nobility 1652 under the name of von Streitberg.

Origen (c. 185-c. 254), the foremost theologian of the Eastern Church, active in Alexandria and Palestine; author of Hexapla (now lost), a polyglot synoptic compilation of the six different versions of the New Testament.

Otakar I Premysl (c. 1155-1230), King of Bohemia (1198-1230), who won both Bohemia’s autonomy from the German king and the hereditary rights to the Bohemian crown for his house of Přemysl. 

Otakar II Přemysl, King of Bohemia 1253-78, son of King Vaclav I; supported German interests in his country; for a time his kingdom included not only Bohemia but also Moravia, Austria, Styria, Egerland, Carinthia and Krain, thus extending all the way down to the Adriatic Sea. After failing to win the imperial crown he was defeated by Rudolph I of Habsburg and was killed in battle in 1278.

Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso), (43 BC-17 or 18 AD) Roman poet known for his cycles of erotic poems Amores (Amorous adventures) and Ars armatoria or Ars amandi (The art of love); author of Metamorphoses, mythological tales on the theme of transformation which achieved widespread currency in the Middle Ages; banished in 8 AD on account of his erotic poetry.

Oxenstierna, Axel (1583-1654), count, statesman, Chancellor of Sweden; Gustavus Adolphus’s foremost helper; headed the regency during Christina’s minority.

Paracelsus, recte Theophrastus von Hohenheim (1493–1541), Swiss physician and natural philosopher. A prominent figure in the history of medicine and chemistry; founder of natural philosophy. Styled himself iatrochemist, meaning versed in both medicine and chemistry, and ranks as the founder of iatrochemistry. 

Pečirka, Josef (1818-70),Czech author, translator and physician; in 1850, as a member of the Czech Academy of Sciences (Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften), went on a scientific expedition to Sweden to examine the Czech MSS; published his findings in 1851 in Časopis českeho Muzeum; in 1860 published the Legend of St Catherine from the MS then in KB.

Peringskiöld, Johan the Elder (1654-1720), antiquarian, active at the College of Antiquities from 1680, 1693-1719 as Secretary and Antiquarian of the Realm. Gathered notes and drawings of ancient monuments on his travels in Sweden; edited Icelandic MSS.

Philaretus (9th century), Byzantine physician (?), considered to be an author of a treatise on the pulse which was translated from Greek into Latin c. 1100 and was one of the first medical writings translated. The treatise formed part of Ars medicinae (later Articella) and was both widespread and influential in medieval times.

Pontanus, Georg (Jiři) Barthold of Breitenberk (1550-1614), poet, historian, Dean and Suffragan Bishop of the Prague Cathedral, book collector.

Printz von Buchau, Daniel (1546-1608), baron, justice of appeal in Prague, Silesian privy councillor, secretary to Rudolph II. Inscribed his name and motto, Durat et lucet virtus, in Codex Gigas. His son Johannes served on the Swedish side in the Thirty Years War. 

Procopius of Sázava (c. 1004-1053), canonised;  monk in the kingdom of Kiev, where he came into contact with Church Slavonic; migrated to Bohemia and, starting in about 1030, led the life of a hermit in the Sázava Valley, Bohemia. There he founded a Benedictine monastery having Church Slavonic as its liturgical language and became its abbot; canonised in 1204, ranks as one of the four patron saints of Bohemia. 

Regino of Prüm (c. 840-919), Abbot of Prüm (Germany) from 892, abdicating in 899; later Abbot of the monastery of Ratbod, near Trier; author of books on the theory of music and of canonical works, as well as a world chronicle in two books, covering the period from the birth of Christ until 907 and after his death continued down to 967.

Rudolph II (1552-1612), King of Hungary 1572-1608, King of Bohemia 1575-1611, Archduke of Austria from 1576, Holy Roman Emperor from 1576; resided mostly at his castle in Prague; took a keen interest in art and science (including alchemy and astrology) and was one of the greatest art collectors in the Europe of his age.

Schwenckfeld von Ossig, Kaspar (1489-1561), German theologian, author and preacher, born in Silesia. Schwenckfeld was at first an adherent of Luther, but eventually looked for his own 'via media' between Catholicism and Lutheranism; banned by the Protestants; founded a sect of his own in south Germany, which ceased to exist after the Thirty Years’ War. 

Sculteth (Scultetus, Schulz), Georg (1560-1613), born of a Silesian family, judge, Bishop Suffragan of Breslau 1604-1613, Rudolph II’s imperial councillor and representative in Oppeln, professor of theology at the Neisse seminary (Silesia). 

Stephens, George (1813-95), British philologist, antiquarian and collector, domiciled in Sweden 1834-51, professor at Copenhagen University from 1855. Edited early Swedish texts and ballads; compiled a catalogue of the French and English MSS in KB; founder member of Svenska Fornskriftsällskapet (the Early Swedish Text Society); his collection of MSS and incunabulae is now at KB (the Huseby Collection).

Strindberg, August (1849-1912), author and artist. Employed from 1874 to 1882 at KB, where he audited the Swedish Cultural History section and catalogued the collection of Chinese books; tasked by Senior Librarian Klemming with compiling an inventory of “cubby-holes in the War Office archives” and also at the National Archives (Riksarkivet) and Kammararkivet with a view to weeding out MSS and printed publications on KB’s behalf. In one of his historical essays he describes his discovery of medieval parchment fragments on these occasions.

Tegnér, Elof (1844-1900), librarian, historian, active at Lund University Library from 1863 to 1870 and from 1870 to 1883 at the Royal Library, where among other things he oversaw the relocation of the library from Stockholm’s Royal Palace to Humlegården; Director of Lund University Library from 1883.

Theophilos Protospatharios, author of several medical treatises, some of which have been attributed to Philaretus (q.v.). His writings cover all aspects of medicine; his treatise on urine (Lat. De urinis) was very widely distributed in the Byzantine world, and the Latin translation of it was included in Ars medicinae (later known as Articella).

Titus (39-81), original Latin name Titus Flavius Vespasianus, Roman Emperor from 79, eldest son of Vespasian; was given command of a legion in 67, under his father, during the Jewish war; two years later he took charge of the siege of Jerusalem, which was stormed in AD 70.

Wachtmeister, Axel (1643–99), count and soldier, made field marshal in 1693. Became President of Krigskollegium (the War Office) in 1697, Privy Councillor in 1693; very close confidant of King Karl (Charles) XI.

Wandrycz, Silesian aristocratic family, known from the end of the 13th century. Nicolaus A. Wandrycz inscribed his name in Codex Gigas in 1593 (bl. 307v).

Wenceslas (Václav) I (-929), saint, Duke of Bohemia from 921; encouraged missionary activity in Bohemia and submitted to the suzerainty of the King of the Germans; murdered on the orders of his brother Boleslav; his remains were translated to Prague in 932; ranks as the patron saint of the Czechs, feast day 28th September.

Wenceslas (Václav) II, King of Bohemia 1278-1305 and of Poland from 1300 onwards; also very influential in Hungary, where his son Václav was elected king. After his death and the murder of his son a year later, his kingdom quickly fell apart.

Wenceslas (Václav) III (1289-1306), last King of the Přemyslid dynasty in Bohemia (1305-1306); King of Hungary from 1301 to 1304, and claimant to the Polish throne; his reign was cut short by his assassination.

Vespasian (9-79), original Latin name Vespasianus Titus Flavius, Roman Emperor from 69; given command in 66 of an army sent to put down the rising in Judea; overcame all resistance except in Jerusalem and Masada. His son Titus was left to finish off the war in Judea, while he himself made for Rome. His retinue included the former rebel leader Josephus (Flavius).

Wilhelm V, the Pious (1548-1626), Elector of Bavaria 1579-97; strongly influenced by the Jesuits; retired to a monastery in 1597, handing over power to his eldest son Maximilian I.

Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro) (70-19 AD), Roman poet; author of a collection of pastoral poems, Bucolica (later known as The Eclogues) and the didactic poem Georgica. His most famous poetical work is The Aeneid. Virgil was very popular in medieval times, his fourth Eclogue prophesying a reign of peace, being taken as an allusion to the advent of Christ.

Vladislav I (post 1065-1125), son of Duke, later King, Vratislav II; Duke of Bohemia 1109-17 and 1120-25; played an active part in the battles for the Bohemian throne; married Richeza of Berg.

Vossius, Isaac (1618–89), Netherlands scholar and Historian of the Realm; called to Stockholm in 1648 as Queen Christina’s librarian and Greek tutor; catalogued her library; returning to the Low Countries when Christina abdicated, he was allowed, as an extra emolument, to take with him the Codex Argenteus (Silver Bible), which the Swedes had carried off from Prague; it was repurchased for Sweden at a later date.